Bushman, B. J., & Huesmann, L. (2012). Effects of violent media on aggression. In D. G. Singer, J. L. Singer (Eds.) , Handbook of children and the media (2nd ed.) (pp. 231-248). Thousand Oaks, CA US: Sage Publications, Inc.

Violent video games, TV programs, films, Internet websites, and music are often blamed for causing young people to commit acts of violence. Although it is not possible to know whether a particular violent video game caused a particular young person to commit a particular violent crime, one can test whether there is a relationship between exposure to violent media and violent crime rates. One can also test whether violent media cause people to commit aggressive acts that are not serious enough to be classified as violent crimes. The theme of this chapter is that accumulating research evidence has revealed that media violence is one significant factor that contributes to aggression and violence in our society. We also discuss other possible effects of violent media, such as making people more afraid of becoming a victim of violence themselves and making people numb to the pain and suffering of others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)