Bushman, B., & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Media violence and the American public. American Psychologist, 56 (6-7), 477-489.
Abstract: Research suggests that individuals exposed to aggressive models and aggressive materials display increased levels of aggressive behavior. However, with the exception of the television and film media, and the effects of parental models of aggressive behavior, there is a paucity of research addressing the impact of the various modes of exposure to aggressive materials. The present study evaluated the effects of exposure to violent lyric content in Heavy Metal music and consumption of a low dose of alcohol on aggressiveness in a sample of college-age males. Participants were allowed to aggress against a fictitious confederate in a modification of the Buss aggression paradigm via an aggression machine. Analyses revealed that participants exposed to lyrics high in violent content delivered shocks of longer duration to the fictitious confederate relative to those exposed to lyrics low in violent content. Participants also administered shocks of increasing intensities and durations across trials. These results, similar to those found in studies on the effects of visual depictions of violence in television and film media, suggests that aggression effects may also be affected by non-visual media. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)