Bushman, B. (2006, September). Effects of Warning and Information Labels on Attraction to Television Violence in Viewers of Different Ages. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(9), 2073-2078. Retrieved July 6, 2009, doi:10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00094.x

Warning labels on violent television programs give viewers discretionary advice and, therefore, might arouse reactance in viewers of all ages. Information labels give viewers information but no advice and, therefore, should not arouse reactance. Five age groups were tested: 9-11 year olds, 12-14 year olds, 15-17 years olds, 18-20 year olds, and adults at least 21 years old. Participants (N = 900) read descriptions of violent and nonviolent TV programs and rated how much they wanted to watch them. The description contained a warning label, an information label, or no label. Consistent with reactance theory, results showed that warning labels drew people of all ages to violent TV programs. Information labels did not draw viewers to violent programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved)(from the journal abstract)