Bruce, L. (1995). At the intersection of television and real-life violence: Emotional outcomes, cognitive outcomes, and interpretive activities of children. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1995). Dissertation Abstracts International, 57 (1-A), 0013.

Abstract:  This study examines the relationship between exposure to real-life violence and various cognitive outcomes, affective outcomes, and interpretive activities associated with children’s exposure to television violence. Sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-graders from two central city and one suburban school in a large Midwestern city were surveyed. Among other factors, they were questioned about (1) the frequency of their experiences with real-life violence, (2) the degree of violence-related anxiety they suffer as a result of these incidents, (3) their perceptions about violence in the real world, (4) their affective responses to television violence, and (5) the gratifications they associate with violent programs. The nature of the associations that emerged between frequency of victimization and the dependent factors was very different from that obtained between traumatic anxiety and these variables. Frequency of victimization, for example, was positively related to attraction to television violence and affective enjoyment of it, while anxiety was associated with both an aversion to violent television fare and a negative emotional reaction to it. Such discrepancies are interpreted in relation to the different symptoms and coping strategies underlying the “victimization” and “anxiety” measures. In addition to being significantly predicted by exposure to real-life violence and traumatic anxiety, children’s gratifications and character identifications were found to intervene between these predictor variables and the cognitive and affective outcomes associated with television violence. Again, frequency of exposure to real-life violence and traumatic anxiety were associated with distinct patterns of relationships. All results are considered against a typology of victimization that distinguishes between the unique symptoms of anxiety associated with single-incident and chronic victimization. While enhancing our understanding of the nature of the interaction that occurs when tele (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)