Bretthauer, B., Zimmerman, T., & Banning, J. (2007). A feminist analysis of popular music: Power over, objectification of, and violence against women. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 18(4), 29-51. Retrieved July 3, 2009, doi:10.1300/J086v18n04_02

A qualitative content analysis was conducted on lyrics to identify predominant themes in popular music. The songs for analysis were determined by “The Hot 100″ list generated by Billboard Chart Research Services. Feminist and cognitive social learning theories provided a foundation to identify themes. Power over, objectification of, and violence against women was the overall framework that emerged from the lyrics. Within this framework, six themes were identified: men and power, sex as top priority for males, objectification of women, sexual violence, women defined by having a man, and women as not valuing themselves. These themes send gender and relationship messages to music listeners, who are predominantly adolescents. As marriage and family therapists, we can utilize these deconstructed lyrical messages to teach clients about power socialization and its negative effects on relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved)(from the journal abstract)