Berkowitz, L. (1965). Some aspects of observed aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2 (3), 359-369.
Abstract: In 3 experiments Ss, male college students, were either angered or treated in a neutral fashion by a person who had been labeled either as a college boxer or a speech major, and they were then shown a short film. Exp. I and II were designed to test the thesis that the anger instigator would evoke the strongest overt hostility from the frustrated Ss when he had been introduced as a boxer and they had seen a prize-fight film; by associating this person with the aggressive scene, the “boxer” label had presumably heightened his cue value for aggressive responses. Exp. I, employing questionnaire ratings as the hostility measure, confirmed this theoretical expectation. In Exp. II, using electric shocks as the aggressive response, however, there was also an indication that the label “boxer” could have strengthened the person’s cue value for aggression regardless of the nature of the film witnessed by Ss. The findings in Exp. III confirmed the results obtained in earlier investigations by showing that the angered Ss’ inhibitions against aggression varied with the apparent justification for the observed aggression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)