Ballard, M. E., & Coates, S. (1995). The immediate effects of homicidal, suicidal, and nonviolent heavy metal and rap songs on the moods of college students. Youth & Society, 27 (2), 148-168.
Abstract: Examined the impact of lyrical content (LC) or music type (MT) on the moods of 164 male undergraduates (mean age 19.71 yrs). Ss heard one of the 6 songs where 2 MT (heavy metal and rap) were crossed with 3 LC themes (nonviolent/control, homicidal, or suicidal lyrics), and completed a memory task. Ss completed several mood inventories to assess mood, anger experience and expression, levels of depression, self-esteem, state- and trait- anxiety, and current suicidal ideation. Results show that there were no effects of LC or MT on suicidal ideation, anxiety, or self-esteem. The nonviolent rap songs elicited higher depression scores than the violent rap songs. Rap songs elicited significantly more angry responses than heavy metal songs. It can be concluded that there is no evidence that the LC or MT has an immediate effect on either suicidal ideation or state anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)