Baldaro, B., Tuozzi, G., Codispoti, M., Montebarocci, O., Barbagli, F., Trombini, E., et al. (2004, October). Aggressive and non-violent videogames: Short-term psychological and cardiovascular effects on habitual players. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 20(4), 203-208. Retrieved July 17, 2009, doi:10.1002/smi.1015

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the short-term effects on several physiological (arterial pressure and heart rate) and psychological (anxiety and aggressiveness) indexes of playing violent and non-violent videogames in young adults. The study was carried out on a sample of 22 male participants. Subjects invited to participate in the study were recruited from a videogame leisure club. Before and during playing either a violent or non-violent computer game, blood pressure and heart rate were measured. Before and after the game session, the subjects completed the State- Anxiety Inventory-Y (STAI-Y) and the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. The results of the study showed a range of short-term effects of playing violent and non-violent videogames on arterial pressure and on the state anxiety of subjects, but not on hostility measurements. More specifically, the group that played the violent videogames showed a significant increase in the state anxiety score at the end of the game, as compared to the pre-game self-evaluation, and an increase in the systolic blood pressure while the subjects were playing as compared to pre- and post-game values. A decrease in diastolic blood pressure after playing any game was also found. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved)(from the journal abstract)