Ayranci, Ü., Kögeroglu, N., & Günay, Y. (2004, September). Televizyonda çocuklarin en çok seyrettikleri saatlerde gösterilen filmlerdeki siddet düzeyi [Determining the violence rating in the movies displayed at the time the children watch television most]. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 5(3), 133-140. Retrieved July 17, 2009, from PsycINFO database.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, extent and patterns of the occurrence of violence in films shown on television, and to make recommendations regarding protection from exposure to violence. Methods: All films were randomly selected from five different private TV channels (Kanal D, ATV, Show TV, TGRT, Star TV) and watched by the members of a study team. Viewing hours were between the 16.00 hrs and 21.30 firs on weekdays, and 9.00 hrs and 21.30 hrs on the weekends. Research was conducted between 7th February and 14th February 2004. The research team educated the members of the study team about violence and types of it. Types and periods of violence seen were registered on a datum collection form designed by the researcher team. Results: The mean period of films seen and the percentage of violence were 5600 seconds and 33.1%, 1851.3 seconds, respectively. Physical violence was the most frequently encountered type of violence, representing 13.8% of the total viewing time and 41.7% of the total viewed violence time. The highest percentage of physical violence observed was that of injurious behavior (311.7 seconds), followed by hitting (259.6 seconds). Scenes designed to include forms of emotional violence included anxiety, appearing the most and constituting 3.5 minutes (205.7 seconds), followed by those intending to cause fear, at 2.8 minutes (167.78 seconds). In terms of verbal violence, scolding was observed to compose the highest rate of 5.6 minutes (338.2 seconds). Conclusions: All discussion is made in light of the results, and the recommendations made are with regard to the effects upon children or viewers from violence on TV. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved)(from the journal abstract)